First Essay: Relationship between Friendship and General Happiness
Friendship is a relation between two or more people having mutual understandings and some sort of common purpose. Mutual understanding means both the persons have similar ideas or they agree on certain point of view while the common purpose may include their common tasks, work environment and/or common feelings of happiness. For friendship, there is always a common interest, which keeps us bound together. Initially, this commonness may be composed of simple things or ideas, which, with the passage of time, may develop into intimacy, personal affections and may broaden the sharing ideas and interests in wider perspectives. The friendship often strengthens through trials and with the passage of time. It is true that often we discover after some time that the person with whom we have developed intimacy has some different and diverse views on certain things and have different environment, which he may not share with us, yet the friendship exits for the sake of friendship only. However, it is human nature that a man keeps on making friendships and in this way extends the area and perspectives of friendship. Hence, it may be concluded that there is always some commonness in our friendship, which plays the central role in keeping us together.
What is happiness? It is defined and explained by philosophers, scholars and religious persons differently. The meaning and concepts of happiness vary according to the level of one’s knowledge, wisdom and mental state of a person. For a religious person happiness comes through submission to his god and by fulfilling ones obligations towards society and one’s relatives and by being kind to the humanity. A philosopher seeks pleasure and happiness in philosophy and a scholar defines it a certain state of mind of a person when he becomes content with his possessions, has enough opportunities to express himself and has access to most of the things he yearns to. As stated earlier, the concept of happiness varies according to the perception of everyone. For example, a student may be happy when he gets through in the examination or when he wins the heart of a person he likes most. Therefore, we may conclude happiness as a state of a person where he has the feelings of fulfillment and contention and has achieved what he wanted and yearn to.
Therefore, the concern of this study is to find the relation between friendship and general happiness. Both the variables have been explained separately above. Now these variables are interlinked and observed how they affect each other. This we may understand and explain once we operationalize these two concepts. Suppose you are in a state of dejection, the work environment is oppressing and the attitude of your boss is harsh. In this state of depression, you go out, meet your intimate friend, and tell him this entire situation. By the time you disclose your problems, half of the worries are gone automatically. Now, when your friend shows his sympathy with you and assures you that you are not alone in this difficult situation and he would be there to share your problems and will try to help you in any way, you just get relaxed and feel happy.
Similarly, the cool breeze is blowing, beach is colorful, gay people are enjoying their life, and everything seems perfect. Nevertheless, you are alone and feel depressed because there is no one to share these things. Suddenly, a friend of your college or office appears. You take him along to the bar, drink and start chatting. All the feelings of depression vanish unconsciously and within no time you feel happy though the beach is same, cool breeze is blowing the same way but just one thing is changed. That is, your friend is there to share your thought, let you express yourself and all this make you happy.
This is the relationship of friendship with happiness
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Essay # 2
Causes of Poverty
Poverty is a global issue. It has attracted the attention of global community and the United Nations as well as the NGOs all over the world. Poverty has affected the living of the people of the third world as well as it is affecting even the developed world. There are so many causes which have been explored and observed extensively. What concerns me more is a quest and desire to know the reasons why poor people cannot change their state of poverty and to devise some ways to eradicate poverty from the scenario of world so as this world becomes worth living and peaceful where equity rules and people have equal share of the resources available.
The Research Question: For this purpose, my research question is: Why the poor cannot changes the status quo or his present state of poverty by utilizing the available resources. Is it the state of mind that compels one to become poor even in the presence of resources or the disproportionate allocation of resources that result in poverty for certain class of people while brings richness to others. We see such instances everywhere. Suppose you give $10 to two brothers who live in the same home, have equal education and resources. Still after some time you will notice the difference resulting from that money. One may deposit this money in business while the other may loose it in a casino. This is the difference of mental attitude, which concerns my research design. And for this research, one has to adopt the participant observation so one can observe the attitude of people as closely as possible.
The Research Design: To conduct a research in this regard, the best methodology is the participant observation. Through observing the working, environment and behavior of people selected for this study at personal level, by participating actively and by merging into the environment is a best way to know the real reasons for this astonishing phenomenon. This study could be carried out first visiting the place where this research is to be carried out, meeting the concerned people and becoming familiar with their working environment. The people under observation have to be studied becoming a part of that environment and a part of that workforce where the research is being carried out. In this way, they will be observed closely working on the spot so their attitude and method of doing things may be observed. On the spot informal interviews like chats, interviewing their interests, hobbies, likes and dislikes can disclose their mental and professional approach, which can help understanding the situation to make accurate findings.
The Role and Necessity of Participant Observation: This is a participatory observation and as such, the role is active one. One has to become a part of the group of people or the workforce under observation. One has to observe the environment very closely by participating in meetings, at work places and at informal gatherings in order to observe the behavior and their reasoning capabilities may be judged which contribute to their success or failure. By participation at personal level, only one can have better understanding of the things under observation.
Ethical Considerations: It is must for an observer that he/she should be impartial in the his/her observation and conclusions. It is the ethical duty of an observer that while participating in a research he/she should discard all the prejudices and concentrate on the outcomes of observations and try to depict as truly the facts as possible. This is the only way an observation can bring facts for the readers and the public. A well-structured research design, an impartial participative observation of the observer and close to reality fact-findings and conclusions are the key to success for an acceptable research.
Essay # 3
What are the Quasi-experiments: Quasi experiment is defined as an experiment as almost a true experiment. It is not exactly true, but is as if or almost like that. Therefore, by quasi experiment we mean an experiment that imply conditions of a certain thing to the things like that, based on the hypothesis that the one assumption true for one thing also may be applied to the other similar things. There are many varieties of quasi-experiment in research design and, as contrary to the belief by some opposing it; there are less chances of loss of status or prestige in quasi-experiments.
Quasi-experiment uses the matching instead of sampling. For instance, a researcher trying to find the impact of new government policy towards eliminating poverty may use matching facts of some other region or country or city. By analyzing the effects of such research, we may conclude the same results and effects that have been observed in the other place or event. Similarly, the time series analysis can be used to determine a long-term observation. It is used normally to examine changes in the dependant variable over time. For example, the researcher may use the time series analysis to see effects and result of a new law enforced on the crime rate.
Why Quasi-Experiment is used: In quasi-experiments, instead of causes, the word ‘trend’ is applied to describe facts and observations. The only drawback of this kind of experiment is that while discovering a cause one happens to discover many trends. Hence, the major trends are called ‘syndrome’ while the minor trends are called normal or abnormal events. The example of syndrome may be quoted from an observation of Excelsior college boys group, which arrives in the city and indulges in camping. You may call the activities of this group as the Excelsior syndrome.
The Sacrifices of Quasi-Experiment Research Design: As stated earlier, the quasi-experiments are not exact in nature but are based on the assumption of as if and almost like. Therefore, in quasi-experiments we hope that the research design will generate stable and reliable findings, which would help us in determining the conclusions based on these findings. The quasi-experiments are creative, as we do not use a true experiment. Hence, using the quasi-experiment, the researcher has to give up or sacrifice the exact facts and data that is more authentic and reliable. However, the importance and authenticity of quasi-experiment cannot be denied just because it present almost like facts. It has its own implications and value. As the true experiment based research design has limitations, quasi-experiment provides flexibility and much wider perspectives in the field of social research where the researcher has to investigate social variables, the effects of government policies on certain class of people, effect of a new drug on certain type of patients an so on. In this kind of research, quasi-experiment is best suited and provides more opportunities, time limit and better conclusions.
From the above, we may conclude that quasi-experiment research design works best in social sciences researches. It enables the researcher to conduct his research in a wider perspective and lets him observe things, people and event which are observed already elsewhere. The assumptions help him conclude the observations with little efforts and it is cost effective.